Because hemp is classified taxonomically as Cannabis sativa, Canada’s hemp production is regulated by Health Canada. Producers and manufacturers who want to work with hemp must obtain licenses from Health Canada in Ottawa.
In order to grow hemp or manufacturer hemp products you must have a license. Health Canada license forms and information are located online here.
Producers are only allowed to plant certified seed – there is no “common” seed. All hemp planted must be an approved variety, all of which have less than 0.3% THC in them in field.
It is a requirement of Industrial Hemp Regulations that all commercial hemp crops be planted using only Certified Seed. Seed saving and the use of Common Seed are currently NOT allowed under current regulations. Seed Merchants must provide valid Certified Seed Tags to Farmers: Farmers and Processors must be able to provide valid Certified Seed Tags to Inspectors on request. Keeping good records on seed sure helps protect quality in the hemp industry, acting as a check against the emergence of less than desirable genetic traits, such as THC content, population of males and the protection of valued genetic ones, such as oil, protein, and EFA content.
The Canadian Industry initially grew varieties that were imported and were of European origin. In recent years, Canadian plant breeding programs have developed a number of high yielding cultivars that are suitable and adapted to a wide range of growing conditions.
While hemp has a reputation for being easy–to–grow, harvesting the taller, high fibre yielding varieties has been challenging for some operators. In regards to fibre, industrial infrastructure to process the fibre is just being established. However, there is no lack of facilities for processing the seed. While fibre hemp has large potential, hemp production to date has necessarily been geared on the seed side.
There are no registered pesticides associated with hemp, and the crop can be grown chemical free. The market is very sensitive to this issue. A good part of Canada’s hemp production is Certified Organic. The highest seed yield recorded to date has topped 2000 lbs per acre; an average yield is between 600–800 lbs an acre, but rising. Farmers and researchers are working on optimum crop rotations that would give hemp the best yields and promote healthy soil for the future. Ongoing breeding programs are also working on boosting yields.
Once you have your criminal record check, your GPS, and have filled out the forms, (snail) mail the whole package to Health Canada’s Hemp Office. They need the original documents.
Full information about the Hemp Regulations can be found
Health Canada Hemp Office
Industrial Hemp Section
Licences and Permits Division, Office of Controlled Substances
Drug Strategy and Controlled Substances Programme
Healthy Environments and Consumer Ottawa, Ontario
Hemp Office numbers:
Phone: (613) 954–6524
Fax: (613) 941–5360
It’s a good idea to call and touch base with Health Canada to check on status of your application. You are strongly advised to apply this before May 1st so that your planting is not delayed by a last minute licensing rush.
Field Sampling and Testing is a requirement for some hemp crops. Increasingly, cultivars are being exempted on an annual basis. Please check with Health Canada when applying for your license whether you are required to have your crop sampled and tested.
CHTA helps farmers find a licensed sampler and licensed testing lab. Sampling and testing usually happens before harvest in August. CHTA negotiates for best rate and receives a discount for members from both laboratory and sampler. Sampling can run between $140–200 and Testing is now about $150. These costs are by field. It is cost effective to plant in fewer fields.
Contracts and Marketing: For best results, growers are advised to seek a production contract. CHTA also maintains a list of surplus grain for new buyers.
Regulations in General – Other Activities: Operators who plan on processing, Regulations in General - Other Activities: Operators who plan on processing, transporting or possessing industrial hemp may also be required to acquire a hemp license as well. Once hemp fibre is removed from the field, no license is needed. Seed, once processed into an edible or consumable product and so rendered non viable, does not require a license. Please contact Health Canada @ the Hemp Office address above for more information.
TestPledge is an industry-driven, non-governmental program that regulates allowable THC content in food and cosmetics to undetectable levels. Pledge companies commit to implement quality control which limit the amount of trace residual THC in hemp nut and oil, thus eliminating the risk of a confirmed positive drug test. All CHTA members participate in this program.
There is great interest nationally in fibre uses. However fibre production opportunities are closely tied to processing capabilities which are very limited. Interesting markets under development include non wovens, composites, building materials, animal bedding, pulp and paper products. Textiles represents a technically challenging scenario ˜ but thanks to R&D, “Dirt to Shirt” production in Canada may soon emerge as an opportunity.
A rising demand for alternatives to wood and synthetic fibres, as well as high costs of petroleum products, points towards hemp’s future potential in a variety of industries and applications.
Each plant is made up of approximately 30% bast fibre, 60% hurd, and 10% chaff.
Fibre production includes unique challenges and processes. Some of these include:
Retting is the process of separating hemp’s outer bast and core fibres. As a form of controlled biological decomposition, retting is a hands-on process that involves leaving swathed fibre in the field, which is then turned to advance the even decomposition of fibre. Retting weakens the chemical bonds of the fibre allowing decortication. Enzyme based and water retting are two others methods that have been used. Poor retting can impact fibre quality and fibre yield and is a challenge for new growers.
Good quality decortication is a challenging process and research is ongoing into machinery and other methods to reduce the cost of this traditionally mechanical process. Steam explosion, detergents, force methods and ultrasound are other possible methods for decortication. The quality of fibre separation determines what markets can be entered. The principle manufacturers of decortication lines are located in Europe.
Not all fibre is created equal. End users require fibre to meet specific parameters in order to be usable. Examples include fibre length, cleanliness and modulus. There are currently no uniform sector standards, so in practice, fibre standards are developed between processor and end user.
Hemp bales are bulky in volume. As a result of their bulk, transportation distance from field to processor are limited by economics and economically, can only be transported a limited distance from field and factory.
Collection, transport and storage of fibre can greatly affect fibre quality and final yield at plant. Hemp processing plants must also evaluate the land base they are drawing their fibre from.
Which fibre ?
As has been said, hemp has two kinds of fibre, bast and core, which are used in very different applications. Generally speaking, the inner, wood–like core fibres go to “low end” uses, such as bedding and hemp concrete while the outer bast fibres go to more demanding, better paying and demanding technical markets. One economic analysis of hemp industry fibre development is that both kinds of fibres must be produced and sold in parallel ˜ therefore growth of low end markets, must proceed in pace with the development of higher end markets.
At current levels of production, hemp fibre cannot economically compete with other waste fibres, such as straw or wood, to create certain products, such as biofuels and fiberboard. Rather, hemp’s value will likely be recognized first in technical products that demand specific fibre quality, such as replacing fiberglass in modern manufacturing.
The best fibre quality comes from hemp that has been produced as dedicated fibre and not allowed to produce seed. So–called dual use hemp crops, involving both fibre and grain harvested from the same crop, may be an attractive scenario for hemp oilseed/grain producers, but is should be recognized that the higher end fibre markets may be closed to them.
Valuation of hemp fibre can range between 50$ to 500$ and up a ton, depending on quality.
One of the challenges of the modern hemp industry is that because of prohibition, hemp was deprived of capital and time needed to develop the infrastructure to process the harvested raw material into usable raw material. Compared to other resources, we are playing catch up.
Harvested hemp seed is referred to as “grain” to differentiate from Certified Seed (for planting) and consumer ready processed seed. Marketing unprocessed hemp seed or grain is not allowed as per regulations. All grain must be rendered non viable in some way before it enters the consumer marketplace.
Note that latitude is a factor that will influence attributes of seed. Some field research has indicated that hemp seed grown at higher latitudes will have a higher Essential Fatty Acid (EFA) content as well has a tendency to have lower THC levels. This is because hemp is a daylight sensitive plant.
Under Canadian regulations, finished food products must contain less than 10 parts per million of THC. This is held as a safe and generally undetectable amount. However, market considerations may require even more strenuous reductions in THC content.
Seefor more information. Breeding programs and improved cleaning regimens will also reduce THC levels.
Hemp seed has a thin shell and must be handled with care, in harvest, transport and storage. Cracking the seed shell will turn the valuable oils rancid and inedible. Similarly, any processed oil is bottled and capped with nitrogen to avoid rancidification. Processors, marketers and retailers must pay attention to shelf life and stability and have accurate best–before dates.
Do note that prices for grain fluctuate. As of time of writing (winter 2007–08) conventional hemp seed was selling for between 0.45–0.60 cents a lb/FOB cleaner. Certified Organic seed was selling for 0.85 cents a lb/FOB cleaner.
Because of Essential Fatty Acids, sterols, tocopherols, proteins, dietary fibre, micronutrients and other elements that are beneficial to human health, hemp seed and hemp seed derivatives have very attractive marketing benefits in the modern marketplace.
Canadian food labeling regulations are changing and for the better. Processors and Marketers are advised to keep abreast of, and the developing .
Each of these schemes allow for different kinds of content and health claims.
Other forms of voluntary labeling may be desirable such as Certified Organic and Kosher Parve. Canada is developing acurrently most Certifiers active in Canada also certify to the .
As a new crop, hemp markets are under constant development. It is reasonable to assume that any new crop can take 15–50 years for market to develop.
Currently, the principal hemp markets are for hemp seed. Hemp seed attracts commercial interest because of high protein and excellent Essential Fatty Acid profile. Most Hemp seed whether in seed, oil, flour/powder or and in finished foods goes into the health food and nutraceutical sectors. There is also a growing market in cosmetics and bodycare products for hemp oil.
Hemp is following the international growth trend for Certified Organic products.
There is a low paying birdseed market but there is also marked competition from overseas sources and alternatives to hemp seed. The potential for domestic pet/vet markets is very promising; as well, the potential for feed cattle, poultry, and fish is significant. Hemp is not yet approved as a commercial feed under domestic feed regulations.
Currently, much of the hemp market is in the USA. As the US does not permit hemp farming, there is a large captive market for Canadian production south of the border. Coupled with strong future in the US, there is a growing market at home in Canada. Awareness about hemp is rising, because hemp is used in many quality products and helps contribute to the health of people, farms and communities. Some companies active in the sector have reported a 20–40% growth of businesses over the past few years. Retail sales of all Canadian–derived hemp seed products are now estimated to be as high as $20–$40 million USD annually.
So where are the Hemp (Seed) Markets? Health foods, Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals; Ingredients; Natural Body Care and Cosmetics, Birdseed and Pet/Vet markets.